In its recent decision in Hall vs. Hall, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that after a final decision in one of several consolidated cases, the losing party has the immediate right to appeal that decision, even when other consolidated cases are still pending. Courts may consolidate cases for efficiency. Writing for the Court, Justice Roberts made clear, however, that such consolidation does not change the independent nature of the underlying claims, and that consolidated cases retain their separate and distinct identities.


The cases at issue arose from a family dispute. Ethlyn Hall had a falling out with her son, Samuel, who had been acting as her legal adviser, real estate manager, and caretaker. Thereafter, Ethlyn transferred her property into a trust and designated her daughter, Elsa, as the successor to that trust. She also filed suit against Samuel for mismanagement of her legal affairs.  After Ethlyn’s death, Elsa became the plaintiff in that fiduciary case. Samuel later filed suit against his sister in her individual capacity.

Samuel moved for consolidation of the cases, which the District Court granted under FRCP 42(a). The jury first returned a verdict for Samuel in the individual case, but the District Court granted Elsa’s request for a new trial. This effectively reopened the judgment. The jury then decided the fiduciary case—also in Samuel’s favor. When Elsa attempted to appeal that decision, Samuel moved to dismiss the appeal.

His argument was that because the claims had been consolidated, and the individual claims remained unresolved pending the new trial, the fiduciary case was not final and appealable yet. The Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit agreed and dismissed the appeal. Elsa appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, asking it to extend a 2015 decision, regarding jurisdiction in multidistrict cases, to single district consolidated cases, such that the entry of a final judgment in only one case makes that case immediately appealable despite pending claims in another related case.

Textual and Historical Analysis Trumps Judicial Economy

The decision turned on the Supreme Court’s understanding of the term “consolidation” as used in Federal Rule of Civil Procedure Rule 42.  That rule allows for the “consolidation” of actions that “involve a common question of law or fact.”

The Court noted that, if the actions had not been consolidated, there would have been no question that Elsa had the right to immediately appeal the judgment in the fiduciary case. Consolidation, the decision went on to explain, did not change the nature of this right. The Court relied on the 125-year history of the federal court consolidations statute, which preceded the adoption of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in 1938.

Samuel had argued that this was a plain meaning case. In his reading of the rule, consolidated cases “merged” and should be regarded as one case for the purposes of appeals. After consulting many dictionary definitions, the Court decided that the meaning of the term “consolidated” was actually ambiguous: it could have either Samuel’s desired meaning—“the complete merger of discrete units”—or Elsa’s—“joining together discrete units without causing them to lose their independent character.”

One (unfortunate) metaphor Samuel offered of consolidation functioning as a merger was marriage. The Court discarded that comparison, pointing out that married people retain their independent characters and individual agency, and teasing that however “dear to each other, spouses would be surprised to hear that their union extends beyond the metaphysical.”

These varying definitions, along with the long history of consolidation predating Rule 42, convinced the Court that consolidation does not rob cases of their independent character. While case consolidation will continue to be helpful for efficiency and practical management purposes, the Court’s textual and historical analysis clarified that consolidation “preserv[es] the distinct identities of the cases and the rights of the separate parties in them.”

Immediate Implications

The Court explicitly does not bar district courts from consolidating cases for all purposes “in appropriate circumstances.” But it does clarify that litigants in constituent cases retain their separate right to immediately appeal a final decision. Going forward, disappointed federal-court parties now know that they are empowered to appeal the decision in one of several consolidated cases. Moreover, litigators should know to act accordingly, and exercise that right to appeal in a timely manner.